Credit Goh Chai Hin/Agence France-Presse â Getty Images
BEIJING â Chinaâs legislature approved an antiterrorism law on Sunday after months of international controversy, including criticism from human rights groups, business lobbies and President Obama.
Critics had said that the draft version of the law used a recklessly broad definition of terrorism, gave the government new censorship powers and authorized state access to sensitive commercial data.
The government argued that the requirements were needed to prevent terrorist attacks. Opponents countered that the new powers could be abused to monitor peaceful citizens and steal technological secrets.
Whether the complaints persuaded the government to dilute the bill was not clear: State news media did not immediately publish the text of the new law. But an official who works for the Standing Committee of the National Peopleâs Congress indicated that at least some rules authorizing greater state access to encrypted data remained in the law.
âNot only in China, but also in many places internationally, growing numbers of terrorists are using the Internet to promote and incite terrorism, and are using the Internet to organize, plan and carry out terrorist acts,â the official, Li Shouwei, told a news conference in Beijing.
Mr. Li, a criminal law expert, said the antiterrorism law included a requirement that telecommunication and Internet service providers âshall provide technical interfaces, decryption and other technical support and assistance to public security and state security agencies when they are following the law to avert and investigate terrorist activities.â
The approval by the legislature, which is controlled by the Communist Party, came as Beijing has become increasingly jittery about antigovernment violence, especially in the ethnically divided region of Xinjiang in western China, where members of the Uighur minority have been at growing odds with the authorities.
Chinese leaders have ordered security forces to be on alert against possible terrorist slaughter of the kind that devastated Paris in November.
Over the weekend, the shopping neighborhood of Sanlitun in Beijing was under reinforced guard by Peopleâs Armed Police troops after several foreign embassies, including that of the United States, warned that there were heightened security risks there around Christmas.
In addition, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs said on Saturday that it would expel a French journalist, Ursula Gauthier, for a report that suggested the Chinese governmentâs unyielding policies were stoking violence by Uighurs in Xinjiang.
Uighurs are a Turkic ethnic minority, largely Sunni Muslim, who have become ever more discontented with controls on their religion and culture and with an influx into Xinjiang of ethnic Han migrants. The government says that violent acts by disaffected Uighurs have been inspired and instigated by international extremist groups, but critics say the conflict arises from homegrown disaffection.
In March of last year, Uighur assailants used knives to slash to death 29 people at a train station in Kunming, a city in southwest China. Last month, the government in Xinjiang said Chinese security forces had killed 28 people who were accused of orchestrating an attack on a coal mine that killed 16 people.
Human rights groups have warned that the new law will give even more intrusive powers to the Chinese government, which already has broad, virtually unchecked authority to monitor and detain citizens and to demand information from companies and Internet services.
âWhile the Chinese authorities do have a legitimate duty in safeguarding their citizens from violent attacks, passing this law will have some negative repercussions for human rights,â William Nee, a researcher on China for Amnesty International who is based in Hong Kong, said in emailed comments.
âEssentially, this law could give the authorities even more tools in censoring unwelcome information and crafting their own narrative in how the âwar on terrorâ is being waged,â Mr. Nee said.
The final draft law defined terrorism as âadvocacy or actions of using violence, sabotage, threats and other means to create social panic and endanger public safety and to violate persons and property, or to coerce state organs and international organizations, in order to achieve political, ideological and other goals,â Xinhua, the official news agency, reported on Monday.
International companies that use encrypted technology in China had been worried by provisions in the earlier draft law that would have required them to hand over code and other information so that the authorities could monitor users. That could affect multinational companies like Cisco, IBM and Apple, all of which have big stakes in China.
âThese companies have been dealing with this increased, letâs call it oversight, for the last two or three years,â said Scott D. Livingston, a lawyer who works for Simone IP Services, a consulting firm in Hong Kong, and who has followed the discussions over the law. If the antiterrorism lawâs requirements remained the same as in the earlier draft, Mr. Livingston said, âfrom the governmentâs perspective, you have a stronger basis to request this access.â
In January, foreign business groups wrote to President Xi Jinping to voice collective unease about Chinaâs Internet policies, including the draft legislation, which could have required handing over sensitive data and commercial secrets.
The proposed rules âwould essentially force all foreign companies, including U.S. companies, to turn over to the Chinese government mechanisms where they could snoop and keep track of all the users of those services,â Mr. Obama said. âTech companies are not going to be willing to do that.â
A few days before the Antiterrorism Law passed, Hong Lei, a spokesman for Chinaâs Ministry of Foreign Affairs, told a regular news briefing that criticism from the Obama administration was unfounded.
Mr. Li, the criminal law expert with the National Peopleâs Congress, insisted that the new law was no reason for multinationals to be alarmed. âThese rules will not affect the ordinary business activities of the firms concerned,â he said.
On Sunday, the legislators also approved legal changes to put in place Chinaâs new policy, announced in late October, allowing all married couples to have two children, replacing the decades-old rule that restricted most urban couples to one child. The two-child rule will take effect Friday.