Credit Illustration by Sally Thurer
In the late 1960s, an undergraduate psychology student at Wellesley College named Martha McClintock noticed something interesting: Women who spent a majority of their time together tended to get their periods around the same time. She suspected that menstruating bodies could influence one another somehow, but it was just a hunch. So she asked 135 of her fellow students to keep track of their cycles. Three times that year, she quizzed them about their period start and which women they socialized with the most.
Initially, it seemed McClintock was right: Close-knit groups of friends tended to start their periods together. The phenomenon of menstrual synchrony was nicknamed the âMcClintock effect,â and her work was lauded as one of the first mainstream studies to demonstrate how one personâs body chemistry can trigger responses in anotherâs. But McClintockâs results have been difficult to replicate; now, the scientific consensus is that cycles probably donât sync up â a claim that rings untrue to anyone who menstruates. My friends and I joke that we even seem to sync up digitally, thanks to constant contact via iMessage, Snapchat and Twitter.
The unresolved nature of McClintockâs investigation, now almost 50 years old, underscores the unnerving amount of opacity that still surrounds womenâs health. Even today, itâs difficult for women to get a sense of whatâs normal and what isnât. When my friends and I talk about our bodies, we compare feedback from physicians, all of which seems to be slightly different; we warn one another about conditions like uterine fibroids and share horror stories about different methods of contraception. There still seems to be a combination of prudishness and ignorance around the unique, and sometimes idiosyncratic, functions of the female body â which is shocking, considering half the world is born with one.
But in recent years, mobile technology has granted me and countless others the ability to collect an unprecedented amount of information about our habits and well-being. Our phones donât just keep us in touch with the world; theyâre also diaries, confessional booths, repositories for our deepest secrets. Which is why researchers are leaping at the chance to work with the oceans of data we are generating, hoping that within them might be the answers to questions medicine has overlooked or ignored.
In March, I sat in a conference room with Jasmine McDonald, an assistant professor at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, and Lauren Houghton, an associate research scientist at the same school. The scientists, who are in their 30s, have been studying puberty patterns in adolescent girls, particularly how various aspects of a girlâs menstrual cycle correlate with the development of certain diseases later in life. Because McDonald and Houghton often work with girls in their teens or younger, theyâve struggled over the years with data-collection methods. They had, until recently, used paper questionnaires and calendars. But they found that their teenage subjects had hazy recollections of dates.
Credit Illustration by Sally Thurer
McDonald and Houghton asked a high-school intern they worked with how she kept track of her period. She said that she used apps, and she eventually led them to one named Clue. First they were stunned, and then delighted. Of course: Asking young people to use a paper calendar was like assigning homework. Invariably, it would be completed at the last minute, sloppily. It made much more sense to use an app, especially one already available.
The researchers found the data collected via Clue to be more detailed â and more accurate. âThe data is as close to real time as we can get,â McDonald said. They hope their young participants will be more comfortable telling a faceless app about personal health matters â a slump of depression, gross blood clots, irritated bowels â than telling a doctor. And itâs not just teenagers; most of us are willing to be much more honest with our phones than with professionals, or even with our spouses and partners. We look up weird symptoms and humiliating questions on Google with the same ease that we search for the name of a vaguely familiar character actor. For many of us, our smartphones have become extensions of our brains â we outsource essential cognitive functions, like memory, to them, which means they soak up much more information than we realize. When we hand over this information willingly, the effect is even greater.
Both scientists say that the app has opened up endless possibilities for their research, because it offers a way to rethink â and potentially overhaul â how womenâs health is studied. âWe think we know about menarche, because weâve been looking at it for decades,â Houghton said. âBut thereâs still so much to study.â Clue can collect more than just period start dates. It can also gather data on things like bleeding and pain patterns, energy levels and sexual activity, allowing researchers to put old wivesâ tales to the test of scientific rigor.